World Aids Day: Why could not find a vaccine for HIV? What are the challenges facing scientists?

Vaccine For HIV:

AIDS Day..

Many miracles are happening in medical science‌ The impossible is becoming possible. But… still some diseases are challenging the world medical field. Such is the AIDS epidemic. 42 years ago i.e. in 1981 this HIV virus was discovered for the first time. The World Health Organization (WHO) has revealed that more than 8 crore people have been affected by this virus (HIV Virus Mortality Rate) so far. At least 4 crore people lost their lives due to this. Half of the infected have become victims (HIV Death Toll) so it can be understood how dangerous it is (AIDS Day). World countries and companies have spent millions of dollars for the treatment of this disease. Despite spending so much, they still could not find a vaccine for this virus. The only treatment currently available is Antiretroviral Medications (ART). With this therapy, the HIV virus cells in the blood can be reduced to some extent. This therapy is very useful to control their effect. Medical experts cannot clearly say that this is the only correct way to control HIV. Biotechnology scientists are doing research on this from time to time. Still no proper weapon has been made. 

Why is there no vaccine..? 

If even this little research is not done…if completely neglected, HIV disease Many more would have been sacrificed. With ART treatment, no new person can be protected from this infection to some extent. The last time such a large number of cases were reported was in 2004. After that it gradually decreased. Although the virus can be controlled with ART drugs, it cannot be assumed that the cells will become silent completely. All of them are HIV Reservoir Group‌ are hidden in the cells. They become active again when this therapy is stopped. Gradually weakens the body. So…this is only a temporary solution. Moreover, this therapy should be done daily. A vaccine that can completely kill those virus cells. only one But the same is not available. Why can’t they find a vaccine for this virus? Why are the scientists who are doing so many miracles not being successful in this matter? 

The challenges are..

The HIV virus is in the form of RNA in the body. After that it gradually mutates into DNA. means to infect The body becomes permanently settled in the cell. From there, it produces some more RNA versions and transports them to the rest of the cells. Due to the high mutation rate, the virus spreads rapidly to all cells. Science‌ Scientists have already announced that there is no other virus that can mutate so fast in history. It completely destroys the immune system. That’s why people who are infected with this virus get weak very quickly. Immune in the body The virus attacks the cells first. Helper T Cells are very important in our body’s immune system. HIV virus kills these first. That’s why the virus spreads to all the cells of the body very quickly. In some cases the HIV virus‌ Some cells remain hidden for months. Stop spreading immediately. This is known as Latency in scientific language. There are cases of being silent for a few years and then becoming active. This delay also makes treatment difficult. A virus that remains silent during healing After that it is attacking. 

Treatment..? Eradication..?

Generally there are two ways to reduce any disease. One is to heal…the other is to end it completely. Currently there is only treatment for HIV. There are two ways in this medicine. Complete elimination of HIV sources in the body. This is called  sterilizing cure. Another is Functional Cure. This functional cure is to reduce HIV levels without doing ART therapy. Research has been going on for many years on both these treatment methods. Even without daily ART therapy, the virus can be controlled to some extent through antibody therapy and therapeutic vaccines. Through this treatment, immunity increases and the power to fight the virus increases. Experiments..

In 2008, a person in Germany was infected with HIV. Already had leukemia. A stem cell transplant was done to treat leukemia. HIV virus is also controlled with this treatment. It created a sensation at that time. Then in 2010, a baby was born with HIV in Mississippi. After giving ART therapy for almost two years, the effect decreased to some extent but later it became active again. In France, 20 people were infected with HIV and all of them were given the same therapy. It stopped after a few days. However, HIV virus is not active in them. Treatments work differently on each individual. But..the doctors are not stopping the experiments. The biggest challenge facing clinicians is to develop a comprehensive understanding of HIV reservoirs. This is the reason for not being able to make a vaccine. It is becoming increasingly difficult to identify and directly target the rapidly mutating HIV virus. Although the researches and experiments have brought relief to a lot of people…scientists say that there is still a lot to be achieved.